Bloom Date Project

Data

Michael Denny

 

This page provides links to various formats of the 2012 Bloom Sequence data set. This data combines the data from Reverend Miller, the Heartland Peony Society and more recent data collected by Michael Denny.

The links to Alphabetic Sort and Bloom Sequence Sort will take you to web pages with the data listed in either alphabetical order or by bloom sequence.

All bloom times are listed with respect to Red Charm. Red Charm is said to bloom at time zero and the bloom time of all other peonies is given relative to this time. This is the number contained in the offset column.

For example, the entry for Alexander Woollcott shows that from the 17 observations recorded (#obs = 17), Alexander Woollcott blooms 4 days (offset = 4) after Red Charm (offset = 0).

The data should be used as a guide in considering when a cultivar will bloom. There is a danger that the offset will seem too precise and consequentialy will mis-lead. Annual weather variations will change the exact number of days that a cultivar will bloom before or after Red Charm. Caution is particularly needed for cultivars with only one observation. As we obtain more observations we will update and improve the data in the current tables.

Note: The following tables are large and may take some time to download.

Data by Alphabetic Cultivar/Species Name

Data by Bloom Sequence

A .csv file is also available via the following link for anyone who wishes to import the data into a spreadsheet application such as Excel.

Download .csv file

Bloom Date Project

Seven Weeks of Bloom

Michael Denny

 

As an alternative to poring over the actual peony bloom time data, some summary information is presented here without all of the details. The article is organized around the idea that the peony enthusiast can have seven weeks of bloom. Not many of us will choose to plant for all seven weeks but it is very easy to obtain four or five weeks of bloom.

Table 1 provides information on the distribution of cultivars by the weeks in which they first bloom. I took all the cultivars in the bloom data and asked what percent start to bloom in week one, week two etc. The answer is in the Table below.

Our data does not contain every cultivar but I believe that the distribution of blooming time shown in Table 1 is a reasonable approximation to the cultivars that are currently commercially available. I have no way to prove that my belief is correct and you should keep this limitation in mind. If one considers the set of all named cultivars (whether in commerce or not), my belief would change.

There are many more older lactifloras that are not currently available and this would change the distribution. The percentages in Weeks Five and Six, and perhaps Seven would be even larger. The percentages in the other weeks would fall although the pattern, a slow increase across the early weeks, would not change.

Week
Percentage
One
2.4%
Two
4.8%
Three
7.4%
Four
17.1%
Five
49.8%
Six
18%
Seven
1.4%
Table 1

There is a huge peak in Week Five when almost one-half of the cultivars start to bloom. In addition, there are many cultivars that begin to bloom in the week preceding and the week after the Peak Week. These three weeks, Weeks Four, Five and Six, contain about 85% of the cultivars and represent the common blooming period that we are all used to enjoying.

If one wants a very long peony season, one has to select the early blooming varieties. There are three weeks of possible bloom before Week Four and only one week after Week Six. It is the long early bloom period that is attractive to peony enthusiasts.

In Southern Ontario, where I live, the peak, Week Five, would be about June 4th to 10th. These dates will vary with your location. Colder locations will have to wait a little longer and warmer location will see the peak earlier. Week Two will begin here about mid-May.

For each of the seven weeks, I will provide some examples of the cultivars that bloom during this period. The selections are biassed towards cultivars that are available and that perform well.

Table 2 provides examples for the first three weeks. Week One belongs to the species. These are not as widely available in Canada as in Europe but can be found. At the very end of this week, the Fernleaf peony and its hybrids, e.g. 'Little Red Gem' will begin to bloom.. A small number of Saunders' hybrids, such as 'Nova' will also bloom in Week One

Week One
Week Two
Week Three
P. caucasicaStarlightClaire de Lune
P. anomalaNosegayFirelight
NovaP. officinalisRoselette
P. peregrinaEarly ScoutIllini Belle
Little Red GemLaddieEarly Glow
P. tenuifoliaYachiyo-tsubaki (TP)Hana Kisoi (TP)
Table 2 (TP = Tree peony)

Week Two continues with further hybrids of the Fernleaf peony, for example, 'Early Scout' and 'Laddie', P. Officinalis and its hybrids also begin to bloom in this week along with more of Saunders Hybrids.

Although our information on bloom dates for tree peonies is very limited, some tree peonies will begin to bloom in Week Two and one example is given in Table 2.

The bulk of the tree peonies will bloom in Weeks Three and Four with a few starting in Week Five. Because our data is so limited, we will not discuss tree peonies in any detail.

The volume of hybrid cultivars increases substantially in Week Three. There are now more gorgeous semi-doubles to accompany the singles. There are still no lactifloras but there are many hybrid varieties from which to choose. A few examples are shown in Table 2.

In Table 3, we provide a few examples of the cultivars that begin to bloom in Weeks Four and Five. The hybrids continue to dominate in Week Four although the earliest lactifloras will start to bloom by the end of this week.

Week Four
Week Five
Scarlet O'HaraM. Jules ElieCoral Charm
MoonriseDiana ParksFestiva Maxima
Red CharmMiss AmericaRed Grace
CythereaDo-tellWesterner
Richard CarvelSea ShellMother's Choice
Mme de VernevilleMrs. F.D. RooseveltGardenia
Table 3

The choice of cultivars is very large in Week Four and even larger in Week Five. Almost one in six cultivars begins to bloom in Week Four and almost one in two in Week Five. In Table 3, I have used two columns for Week Five to increase the number of examples. These twelve cultivars are only a tiny portion of the more than 300 cultivars in our data that will begin their blooming in Week Five.

Week Six continues to offer a very large range of choice of lactifloras. A few of these are shown in Table 4.

Week Six
Week Seven
Sarah BernhardtMarie Lemoine
Martha BullochMarilla Beauty
Nick ShaylorMyrtle Gentry
Ann Hargrove Hudson
Shaylor's SunburstGlory Hallelujah
Sword DanceSinbad
Table 4

Many of the best known Japanese form peonies will bloom in this week. If one wants to have some contrast in flower form, it will be these Japanese that offset the numerous doubles in bloom.

There may only be only six and one-half weeks of bloom. Very few cultivars reliably bloom in Week Seven. You may find, as I have, that cultivars listed in Week Six bloom later than some of those listed for Week Seven. The late blooming cultivars are all sensitive to the weather patterns in a given year. If summer heat arrives early, many of the cultivars in Weeks Five, Six and Seven may open very close together. With a gentler climate or a slow onset of summer many of us can enjoy a longer period of bloom as shown in Table 4.


Flower Form
There are distinct temporal patterns for the different flower forms, single, Japanese, double etc. During the peak Week Five almost all flower forms are widely available.

In our data, about 47 percent of the cultivars are Doubles, 25 percent Single, 14 percent are Japanese and 14 percent are Semi-Double.

Single blooms start the peony season and are very dominant in Weeks One and Two. Even in Week Three they are the most common bloom type.

At the other end of the season, there are no singles in Week Seven and very few in Week Six. This flower form is still widely available in Weeks Four and Five.

Just as the singles become rarer, the next form begins to bloom. The Japanese have perhaps the shortest or most compact bloom period.. There are no Japanese cultivars in the first three Weeks and only a few in Week Four, for example, 'Jewel'.

Japanese cultivars are concentrated in Weeks Five and Six. There are no very late blooming Japanese cultivars in Week Seven. Examples of the latest blooming Japanese cultivars are 'Barrington Belle', 'Shaylor's Sunburst' and 'Sword Dance'.

Semi-Double cultivars span a longer bloom period than the Japanese cultivars. There are many early hybrid Semi-Double cultivars whereas there are almost no Japanese hybrids - 'Jewel' and 'Walter Mains' are hybrid Japanese exceptions.

In Weeks One and Two, Semi-Double cultivars are rare but not unknown. It is the hybrid semi-doubles of Weeks Three and particularly Week Four that form the most important season for this bloom type. There are almost no Japanese hybrids and in contrast there are relatively few Semi-Double lactifloras. There are some, but Semi-Doubles are rare in Weeks Six and none bloom in Week Seven..

The most numerous flower type are Doubles. These are scarce during the first two weeks. The exceptions are 'P officinalis. A few more start to bloom in Week Three but these are uncommon cultivars that are not readily available.

The Doubles take over in Week Four and provide much of the bloom for the remainder of the season. In the last two weeks, the predominant forms will be the Japanese and the Doubles.


Colour
In my garden, I have the impression that the passage of time brings a change in the predominance of different bloom colours. This may reflect my choice of cultivars. I looked at the data to see if my impression could be supported by evidence. In general, the answer is no or that the evidence is quite limited.


Hybrids and Lactifloras
The term hybrid peony conjures up images of vivid colours and early blooming. As noted above, the hybrids (and species) dominate the season from Week One through Week Four. The lactifloras take over and carry most of the bloom for the last three weeks.

During Week Five, the hybrids continue to offer their vivid colours although numerically they are dominated by the lactifloras. During this week, most of the coral hybrids bloom as well as some Double and Japanese hybrids.

By Week Six, the hybrids are finished and the lactifloras carry on for the remainder of the season.


Concluding Comment
This brief summary can not convey the range of choice available. There is a definite bloom peak and if one grows very few peonies there are excellent choices at the peak times. As one grows more peonies, it is worth considering more of the early hybrids and species both for their vibrant colours and for the increase in the length of the peony season.

Bloom Date Project

Michael Denny

 

'Bouquet Perfect'
'Commanche'
'Dainty'
'Dayton'

This Bloom Date Project is an attempt to clarify what we know and more importantly, do not know about the blooming pattern of peonies. This is a long run project to which I hope many will contribute.

For the peony buyer, it would be better if nurseries had a common bloom period classification system. Currently, buyers will find the same cultivar classified as mid season in one catalogue and early in another. This problem carries over to peony books. If the author gathered information about bloom time from a number of sources, it is very likely that the different sources use different classification systems.

By collecting data over a long period of time and in several different locations, this project attempts to make available the information required to put in place a common bloom period classification system.

Michael Denny

'Faith Fenton'
'Garden Treasure'
'Gardenia'
'Gayborder June'
'Gold Rush'

Bloom Date Project

Description

Michael Denny

 

In the past peony bloom dates have been collected by many people. To my knowledge, previous to this project, there have been two major attempts at collecting/consolidating and publishing data over a large number of cultivars. To this we can add the body of information published in nursery catalogues.


The Miller Data

Rev Floyd Miller collected bloom dates for 200 cultivars at Fergus Falls, Minnesota from 1963 to 1975. The location is 140 miles West and 80 miles North of Minneapolis.

The Miller data has two strengths. The first is the use of 13 years of data. The second is the evidence on many older American lactiflora cultivars. It is unlikely that we will find new evidence on these older American cultivars. The Nichols Arboretum has many early American lactifloras but they do not have the staff to collect bloom data.

As presented on pages 191-2 of the APS, Best of 75 Years, the Miller data is a single date for each cultivar. The data is not a simple average of the actual observations but appears to be a median rather than a mean. A median date has an equal number of bloom dates before and after. It will differ from a mean, or simple average, date but probably not by more than one or two days.


The Heartland Peony Society Data

Leon Presnell compiled bloom sequence data and placed it on the Heartland Peony Society web site. This is the most comprehensive list of bloom dates available. There are about 440 cultivars and 1300 observations in the Pesnell data.


Nursery Information

Nursery catalogues provide information on the bloom time for cultivars that they sell. They all do this using variants of a classification system that designates a cultivar as an early, middle or late bloomer. Many use a more complex system that includes very early, very late and some intermediate cases such as early-middle or mid-late. Don Hollingsworth of Hollingsworth Nursery has one of the more complex systems while Klehm's Song Sparrow has a relatively simple one.

I constructed some tables that compared the blooming period category given in catalogues from Klehm's Song Sparrow, Wilds, Hollingsworth Nursery and La Pivoinerie D'Aoust with the bloom data. It is not surprising that there is rough general agreement between the nurseries and the bloom data. There are however some definite disagreements which need further investigation.

Al Rogers in his book "Peonies" is very careful to exclude the bloom period for the cultivars in his longer lists because he recognizes that there is no common source of information.

Lindsay D'Aoust of La Pivoinerie D'Aoust and I have discussed trying to create a common classification system. Personally, I favour a system with five groups or categories, VE, E, M, L and VL. A new common classification system is important because it is not likely that nurseries will ever use a system such as the Red Charm relative dates. The basic weakness of any classification scheme is that some cultivars will bloom near the boundaries of the groups.


Recent Canadian and American Data

New bloom data has been collected and organized by myself, Michael Denny from observations in 1999 to 2003. This adds about 1200 new observations. Bloom data was collected by Brian Porter, Carlos Beca, Lindsay D'Aoust, Leo Smit, Julia Dicks, Val Ames and Irene Tolomeo. I added my own data and organized the information. Some of the data are for years prior to 1999. In particular, Julia and Brian had observations over a number of prior years.

I am hoping that everyone who contributed data in the past will continue to collect bloom dates in 2011 and beyond.

In our current data, we are measuring the bloom dates relative to the bloom dates of Red Charm. This is an attempt to adjust for different bloom dates for a given cultivar at the same location in different years and at different locations in the same and in different years. It is a relatively crude adjustment but will remain in use until we devise a better one.


Going Forward

Our objective is to provide reliable information on the bloom sequence of peonies. The simplest method would be to construct a ranked list of cultivars starting with the earliest bloomers and moving on to the later ones. Such a ranked list is simpler than our current methods because no information is provided about the period of time between the blooming of each cultivar.

We have evidence that even a ranked list is not totally reliable. We have data over a number of years from several gardens and the ranking by bloom time is not identical from one year to the next. This should not deter us from our task but it should warn us that the bloom sequence data that we create has to be used as a valuable guide and it should not be interpreted too literally.

Climate variations are likely the major source of variations in bloom dates. However there is a mystery because some cultivars seem to be affected to a different extent than others by the same weather variation. If this were not true, we would not see the rankings change in the same garden in different years. This is not a simple story of hybrids versus lactifloras but seems to occur for both groups.

Heat is probably the most important variable in explaining the variation in bloom time. In agriculture and the building industry, there has been wide- spread use of degree days. Degree days are a simple transformation of the average daily temperature. For example suppose we believe that it is the temperature above 40F that is important. Then the number of degree days for a day with an average of 60F is 20 ( = 60 - 40) degree days. There are many variants of degree days because one can choose the base temperature (40F in my example) to suit the problem of interest. We will probably want to create our own degree day measure from data on daily maximum and minimum temperature.

When this evidence is available, it would allow us to assess the influence of heat on the bloom sequence. One of the open questions is whether degree days is enough information to explain most of what is happening. If it is, there is less of a role for moisture and soil conditions. The latter may be important but I am hoping that it is temperature that is the major source of variations in the bloom dates.


What is Missing?

We have very limited information on the bloom times for tree peonies and for the peony species. In both cases, far fewer peony enthusiasts grow the plants. Over time, I hope that we can improve this situation.

For the lactifloras and hybrids the current data is more extensive. What we need is more years of observations from more locations and additional cultivars.

Finally, there are many common cultivars for which we have no bloom date observations.

Peony Gardens

Public Gardens that Grow Peonies

This is a list of public gardens that grow peonies (20 cultivars or more). This information would be valuable if you are traveling and would like to find a public garden to visit on your trip. You may also discover some new gardens not too far from where you live to visit. If you know of a botanical garden, arboretum, or public garden near you that grows a collection of peonies, please contact us so we can add it to our listing.

UNITED STATES


Alabama
Huntsville Botanical Garden
4747 Bob Wallace Ave SW
Huntsville AL 35805


Alaska
Alaska Botanical Garden
4601 Campbell Airstrip Rd
Anchorage AK 99507

Georgeson Botanical Garden, University of Alaska Fairbanks
117 W Tanana Dr
Fairbanks AK 99709

Jenson-Olson Arboretum
23035 Glacier Hwy
Juneau AK 99801


California
Filoli
86 Canada Road
Woodside CA 94062

Japanese Tea Garden
75 Hagiwara Tea Garden Dr
San Francisco CA 94118

San Francisco Botanical Garden
1199 9th Ave
San Francisco CA 94122

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens
1151 Oxford Rd
San Marino CA 91108


Colorado
Betty Ford Alpine Gardens
530 South Frontage Rd E
Vail CO 81657

Denver Botanic Gardens
1007 York St
Denver CO 80206


Connecticut
Philip Johnson Glass House
199 Elm St
New Canaan CT 06840


Delaware
Winterthur Museum, Garden and Library
5105 Kennett Pike
Winterthur DE 19735


District of Columbia
United States National Arboretum
3501 New York Ave NE
Washington DC 20002


Idaho
Idaho Botanical Garden
2355 Old Penitentiary Rd
Boise ID 83712


Illinois
Allerton Park & Retreat Center, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
515 Old Timber Rd
Monticello IL 61856

Chicago Botanic Garden
1000 Lake Cook Rd
Glencoe IL 60022

Klehm Arboretum and Botanic Garden
2715 S Main St
Rockford IL 61102


Iowa
Bickelhaupt Arboretum
340 S 14th St
Clinton IA 52732

Dubuque Arboretum and Botanical Gardens
3800 Arboretum Dr
Dubuque IA 52001

Iowa Arboretum
1875 Peach Ave
Madrid IA 50156

Reiman Gardens
1407 University Blvd
Ames IA 50011


Kansas
Botanica Wichita
701 Amidon St
Wichita KS 67203

Kansas State University Gardens
1500 Denison Ave
Manhattan KS 66506

Overland Park Arboretum and Botanical Gardens
8909 West 179th St
Overland Park KS 66013


Kentucky
Ashland, The Henry Clay Estate
120 Sycamore Rd
Lexington KY 40502

Bernheim Arboretum
2499 Clermont Rd
Clermont KY 40110

Botanica Waterfront Gardens
129 East River Rd
Louisville KY 40202

Cave Hill Cemetery Botanical Garden
701 Baxter Ave
Louisville KY 40204

Cherokee Park
745 Cochran Hill Rd
Louisville KY 40206

Louisville Zoological Gardens
1100 Trevilian Way
Louisville KY 40213

Whitehall Mansion & Gardens
3110 Lexington Rd
Louisville KY 40206

Yew Dell Botanical Gardens
6220 Old Lagrange Rd
Crestwood KY 40014


Maine
Maine Audubon, Peonies of Gilsland Farm
20 Gilsland Farm Rd
Falmouth ME 04105


Maryland
Belmont Manor & Historic Park
6555 Belmont Woods Rd
Elkridge MD 21075


Massachusetts
Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University
125 Arborway
Boston MA 02130

Botanic Garden of Smith College
16 College Ln
Northampton MA 01063


Michigan
Nichols Arboretum
1610 Washington Hts
Ann Arbor MI 48104


Minnesota
Arneson Acres Park
4711 W 70th St
Edina MN 55435

Duluth Peony Gardens, Leif Erikson Park
12th Ave E & London Rd
Duluth MN 55802

The Lins Peony Garden, Lions Park
Lake St W
Cologne MN 55322

Minnesota Landscape Arboretum
3675 Arboretum
Chaska MN 55318


Missouri
The Ewing and Muriel Kauffman Memorial Garden at Powell Gardens
4800 Rockhill Rd
Kansas City MO 64110

Linda Hall Library at University of Missouri-Kansas City
5109 Cherry St
Kansas City MO 64110

Missouri Botanical Garden
4344 Shaw Blvd
St. Louis MO 63110

Springfield Botanical Gardens
2400 S Scenic Ave
Springfield MO 65807


New York
Brooklyn Botanic Garden
990 Washington Ave
Brooklyn NY 11225

Cornell Plantations of Cornell University
1 Plantations Rd
Ithaca NY 14850

Hamilton College Arboretum, Grant Garden
198 College Hill Rd
Clinton NY 13323

Linwood Gardens
1912 York Rd W
Pavilion NY 14525

New York Botanical Garden, Dolores DeFina Hope Tree Peony Collection
2900 Southern Blvd
Bronx NY 10458

Rockefeller State Park Preserve
125 Phelps Way
Pleasantville NY 10570

Shacksboro School House Museum
46 Canton St
Baldwinsville NY 13027

Snug Harbor Cultural Center & Botanical Garden
1000 Richmond Terrace
Staten Island NY 10301


North Carolina
JC Raulston Arboretum
4415 Beryl Rd
Raleigh NC 27606

Juniper Level Botanic Garden
9241 Sauls Rd
Raleigh NC 27603

Sarah P. Duke Gardens
420 Anderson St
Durham NC 27705


North Dakota
North Dakota Museum of Art Peony Garden
261 Centennial Dr
Grand Forks ND 58202


Nebraska
Lauritzen Gardens Omaha’s Botanical Center
100 Bancroft St
Omaha NE 68108

Sass Memorial Iris Garden at Eugene T. Mahoney State Park
28500 W Park Hwy
Ashland NE 68003


Ohio
Kingwood Center
900 Park Ave W
Mansfield OH 44906


Oregon
Lan Su Chinese Garden
239 NW Everett
Portland OR 97209


Pennsylvania
Barnes Arboretum
300 N Latches Ln
Merion Station PA 19066

Longwood Gardens
1001 Longwood Rd
Kennett Square PA 19348

Scott Arboretum of Swarthmore College
500 College Ave
Swarthmore PA 19081


South Dakota
Mary Jo Wegner Arboretum
1900 S Perry Pl
Sioux Falls SD 57110

McCrory Gardens, South Dakota State University
631 22nd Ave
Brookings SD 57006


Vermont
Hildene, The Lincoln Family Home
1005 Hildene Rd
Manchester VT 05254

Shelburne Museum
6000 Shelburne Rd
Shelburne VT 05482


Virginia
Meadowlark Botanical Gardens
9750 Meadowlark Gardens Ct
Vienna VA 22182

Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden
1800 Lakeside Ave
Henrico VA 23228


Washington
Seattle Chinese Garden
6000 16th Ave SW
Seattle WA 98106

Washington Park Arboretum
2300 Arboretum Dr E
Seattle WA 98112


Wisconsin
Boerner Botanical Garden
9400 Boerner Dr
Hales Corners WI 53130

Hoard Historical Museum
401 Whitewater Ave
Fort Atkinson WI 53538

Olbrich Botanical Gardens
3330 Atwood Ave
Madison WI 53704

Rotary Botanical Gardens
1455 Palmer Dr
Janesville WI 53545

Sisson's Peony Gardens
221-291 N Main St
Rosendale WI 54974

INTERNATIONAL


Canada
Devonian Botanic Garden, University of Alberta
51227 AB-60
Parkland County AB T7Y 1C5 Canada

Dominion Arboretum and Ornamental Gardens, Central Experimental Farm
Prince of Wales Drive
Ottawa ON K1A 0C6 Canada

Kingsbrae Garden
220 King St
Saint Andrews NB E5B 1Y8 Canada

Montreal Botanical Garden
4101 Rue Sherbrooke E
Montréal QC H1X 2B2 Canada

Oshawa Valley Botanical Gardens
155 Arena St
Oshawa ON L1J 4E8 Canada

Reader Rock Gardens
325 25 Ave SE
Calgary AB T2G 5V1 Canada

Reford Gardens
200 Route 132
Grand-Métis QC G0J 1Z0 Canada

Royal Botanical Gardens
680 Plains Rd W
Burlington ON L7T 4H4 Canada

VanDusen Botanical Garden
5251 Oak St
Vancouver BC V6M 4H1 Canada

Whistling Gardens
698 Concession 3 Townsend Rd
Wilsonville ON N0E 1Z0 Canada


China
Beijing Botanical Garden
Xiangshan Wofosi Road, Haidian District
Beijing 100093 China

Beijing Botanical Garden Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science
No.20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan
Beijing 100093 China

Caozhou Peony Garden
No.1000 Renmin Rd, Mudan District, Shandong Province
Heze 274000 China

China National Flower Garden, Sui-Tang Site Botanical Garden
No.4 Longmendadao Rd, Luolong District
Luoyang 417023 China

China National Tree Peony Garden
Wangchengdadao Rd and 310 National Highway (Hua Shan Lu Kou)
Luoyang 471001 China

Forbidden City
4 Jing Shan Qian Jie, Dongcheng District
Beijing 100009 China

Jingshan Park
No.44 Jingshan West Street, Xicheng District
Beijing 100009 China

King City Park, Wangcheng Park
No. 312 Zhongzhou Rd, Xigong District, Henan Province
Luoyang 471000 China

Master of the Nets Garden
Dai Cheng Qiao Road, No. 11 Kuo Jia Tou Xiang, Gusu District
Suzhou 215000 China

Peace Peony Garden
312 & 309 National Highway, Yuzhong County, Gansu Province
Heping 730102 China

Shanghai Botanical Garden
No. 1111 Longwu Road, Xuhui District
Shanghai 200231 China

Yangzhou Botanical Garden
No.888 Zhuyuwan Rd, Jiangsu Province
Yangzhou 225002 China


France
Les Jardins de Drulon
Château de Drulon
18170 Loye-sur-Arnon France


Germany
Munich Botanical Garden, Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg
Menzinger Str. 65
80638 München Germany

Palmengarten
Siesmayerstraße 61
60323 Frankfurt am Main Germany


Ireland
National Botanic Gardens
Botanic Road
Glasnevin Dublin 9 Ireland


United Kingdom
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh
Arboretum Place
Edinburgh Scotland EH3 5NZ United Kingdom

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew
Kew
Richmond Surrey England TW9 3AB United Kingdom